# Introduction to Statistics MCQ

### ________ are the number of different ways in which objects can be arranged in order.

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### The average adult in the us watches _____ hours of television each week

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### The two sets of pressures that multinational enterprises (mnes) confront are _____.

Correct Answer: Cost reduction and local responsiveness

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### To locate the percentile for a given observation in a data set, the data must be ___________.

Correct Answer: Sorted and listed from the minimum to the maximum values

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### The _____________ is the best point estimate of the population mean.

Correct Answer: The sample mean is the best point estimate of the population mean.

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### The _______ of a discrete random variable represents the mean value of the outcomes

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### Which of the following is TRUE Or False?

Correct Answer: A theory is a set of propositions used to describe a phenomenon.

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### Archival research is an example of ______.

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### You are conducting an experiment to see if level of ambient illumination influences reading speed. You have 2 levels of illumination (bright light and dim light), and for each of the participants you have recorded reading speeds (words/minute). In this example, reading speed would be considered the ______.

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### You are conducting a survey in which you ask people to indicate whether they prefer rock, country, or classical music, and counted how many of your respondents chose each category. You have collected data on a(n) ______ variable.

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### If you would like to be able to conclude that X causes Y (e.g. smoking causes lung cancer), the best approach would be ______.

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### With regard to level of measurement, NOIR would stand for ______.

Correct Answer: Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

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### Students who consume caffeine while studying will earn higher grades than students who do not consume caffeine. This is an example of ______.

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### You are conducting an experiment to see if level of ambient illumination influences reading speed. You have 2 levels of illumination (bright light and dim light), and for each of the participants you have recorded reading speeds (words/minute). Given the nature of your research question you would use a ______.

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### Which of the following is TRUE?

Correct Answer: A sample is a subset of a population.

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### You are recording order of finish of participants in a race (e.g. first, second, third, etc.). The data you are collecting is ______ in nature.

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### Random assignment ______.

Correct Answer: Should be used to ensure that any participant is equally likely to be assigned to either the control group or the experimental group

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### Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method?

Correct Answer: Developing a testable research hypothesis

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### In an experiment, the factor being controlled or manipulated by the experimenter is called the ______.

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### The mean is an example of ______.

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### _____ Statistical procedure used to test hypotheses and draw conclusions from data collected during research studies.

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### ____ Statistic used to summarize and describe a set of data for a variable.

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### Criterion variable is Label for the dependent variable in a nonexperimental (correlational) research study

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### Predictor variable is Label for the independent variable in a non experimental (correlational) research study.

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### _____Research methods involving the use of records or documents of the activities of individuals, groups, or organizations.

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### _____ Research methods involving the systematic and objective observation of naturally occurring behavior or events.

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### _____ Research methods obtaining information directly from a group of people regarding their opinions, beliefs, or behavior.

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### _____ Research methods comparing naturally formed or preexisting groups.

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### Non experimental Research methods designed to measure naturally occurring relationships between variables

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### Group of participants in an experiment not exposed to the independent variable is control group

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### Assignment of participants to categories of an independent variable such that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each category is random assignment

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### Confounding variable is variable related to an independent variable that provides an alternative explanation for the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

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### Research methods designed to test causal relationships between variables is experimental research

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### ___ level of measurement Values of variables equally spaced along a numeric continuum.

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### ____ level of measurement is Values of variables equally spaced along a numeric continuum with a true zero point.

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### ___ level of measurement is Values of variables can be placed in an order relative to the other values.

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### ____ level of measurement is values of variables differing in category or type.

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### ____ is Assignment of numbers or categories to objects or events according to rules.

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### ___ is Subset or portion of a population.

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### ____ is Total number of possible units or elements that could potentially be included in a study.

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### Variable measured by the researcher expected to change or vary as a function of the independent variable is called

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### Variable manipulated or controlled by the researcher is called

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### Set of propositions used to describe or explain a phenomenon is called

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### Property or characteristic of an object, event, or person that can take on different values is called

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### Statement regarding an expected or predicted relationship between variables is ____ hypothesis

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### ____Method of investigation that uses the objective and systematic collection and analysis of empirical data to test theories and hypotheses.

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### Branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data is called

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### High School GPA and score on the SAT exams are considered during college admissions. Both these values are continuous and quantitative measurements.

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### A continuous variable is measured along a continuum at any place beyond the decimal point and can be positive (e.g., height) or negative (e.g., temperature) in value.

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### In an ordinal scale, a larger number represents a greater value than a smaller number, and the ratio of any two numbers represents a meaningful value.

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### Random assignment is not possible in a quasi-experiment because the variables being studies cannot be manipulate

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### Descriptive statistics can help to infer the unknown parameters in a population.

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### Students were asked to rate the effectiveness of video lectures for an online class. Their ratings on a 5-point scale would be:

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### Students were asked to rate the effectiveness of video lectures for an online class. Their ratings on a 5-point scale would be:

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### In blinded studies, consumers’ rankings of the effectiveness of brand name painkillers did not differ from generic painkillers that had the same key ingredients, on a 5-point scale. The scale used in these studies is:

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### Listeners to a specific radio station were asked to rank one hundred songs for popularity. The composite rank scores for the songs were then published and showed the use of a:

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### Data from airline passengers were ranked by their country of origin, an example of a:

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### Is children’s vocabulary related to their parents’ education level? To answer this, researchers measured the number of words 3-year-old children knew and their parents’ education (in number of years). This data can be examined using:

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### Randomly assigning to different groups to ensure that manipulations of the independent variable are measured on similar groups is necessary in:

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### A librarian at a university is interested in looking at how undergraduate students use the library resources. He sends a survey about the library usage to all undergraduate students in the college but receives responses from only a subset of students. In this example, the librarian was interested in getting information from the ______, but could obtain only a ______.

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### A librarian at a university is interested in looking at how many undergraduate students use the library. He records student use of different library resources in one month and extrapolates this information for the year-round usage. This is an example of:

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### A librarian at a university is interested in looking at how many undergraduate students use the library. He records student use of different library resources in one month and extrapolates this information for the year-round usage. This is an example of:

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### A librarian at a university is interested in looking at how many undergraduate students use the library. He records student use of different library resources and tabulates this usage. This information is an example of:

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### True value is the value 0 truly indicates nothing or the absence of the phenomena being measured on a scale of measurement.

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### Statistics is a branch of mathematics used to _____ a group of numbers or observations.

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### _____ refers to single measurement or observation.

Correct Answer: Both b and c

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### Scientific Method is a set of systematic techniques used to _____ knowledge concerning observable and measurable phenomena.

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### Science is the study of phenomena, such as behavior, through strict observation and _____

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### How many Scales of Measurement are there?

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### A characteristic that describes a sample is known as_____

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### Sample is a set of selected _____ taken from a population of interest.

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### Research Method is a set of systematic techniques used to _____ knowledge concerning observable and measurable phenomena.

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### _____ refers to single measurement or observation.

Correct Answer: Both b and c

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### Measurements that have a true zero and are distributed in equal units refer to_____

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### Measurements that have a true zero and are distributed in equal units refer to_____

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### Random Assignment is used to ensure that participants in a study have an equal chance of being assigned to a particular group or condition.

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### A preexisting variable that is often a characteristic inherent to an individual, which differentiates the groups or conditions being compared in a research study is known as_____

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### All are correct about Quantitative Variable except _____

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### All are correct about Qualitative Variable except _____

Correct Answer: Varies by class and amount

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### The population characteristic typically of greatest interest to a researcher is _____

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### Population is a group of _____

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### Measurements where values convey order or rank alone refer to_____

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### Measurements where values convey order or rank alone refer to_____

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### Operational Description is a description of some observable event in terms of _____ by which it was observed or measured.

Correct Answer: Specific process or manner

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### Operational Description is a description of some observable event in terms of _____ by which it was observed or measured.

Correct Answer: Specific process or manner

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### Operational Description is a description of some observable event in terms of _____ by which it was observed or measured.

Correct Answer: Specific process or manner

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### Nominal Variables are typically _____ that have been coded.

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### Levels of the Independent Variable are the specific conditions of the independent variable used in _____

Correct Answer: Both a and b

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### Interval Scale refers to measurements that have a true zero and distributed in equal units.

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### The example of inferential Statistics includes_____

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### Independent Variable is the _____

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### Which of the following is the element of control in an Experiment?

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### Equidistant Scale is a set of numbers distributed in equal units.

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### _____ is measured in whole units or categories that are not distributed along a continuum.

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### Descriptive Statistics are typically presented in _____

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### Descriptive Statistics are typically presented in _____

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### Descriptive Statistics refer to procedures used to _____

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### Dependent Variable is the _____

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### Dependent Variable is the _____

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### Dependent Variable is the variable that is measured in each group of a study and is believed to change in the presence of the ______

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### Datum is a single measurement or observation, usually referred to as a_____

Correct Answer: Both b and c

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### Data is a set of _____ that are typically numeric.

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### A variable measured along a continuum at any place beyond the decimal point is known as_____

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