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# Educational Research And Methods MCQ

### A researcher that fails to report nonstatistical findings, whether to deliberately hide results or the publisher not publishing the article, is an ethical dilemma known as ______.

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### Which of the following is a sample statistic that is used to estimate a population parameter?

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### Often reported with both parametric and nonparametric tests for significance, ______ can describe the proportion of variance in a dependent variable that can be explained by the levels of a factor.

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### A researcher needs to analyze one categorical factor for the extent to which frequencies observed fit well with the expected frequencies. The researcher should use ______.

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### Which type of test is used to test significance in hypotheses tests with nominal or ordinal scales of measurement?

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### Pearson correlation coefficient parametric test for correlation is used for ______ levels of measurement.

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### A source of variation associated with how the effects of one factor are influenced by the levels of a second factor is ______.

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### What is the power of the decision-making process?

Correct Answer: The probability of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis

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### A significant ______ indicates that group means significantly vary across the levels of one factor, ______ of the second factor.

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### If a researcher retains the null hypothesis that is actually false, they have performed a ______.

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### A researcher sets a null hypothesis and runs a test statistic to see if the null hypothesis is true. The criterion is set at .05, and the results show that the tested p value is .021. What can the researcher conclude about their null hypothesis?

Correct Answer: The researcher can reject the null hypothesis and state the effect reached is significant.

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### If a researcher implements a new teaching strategy that is hypothesized to increase learning retention and tests scores, which of the following would be the correct null hypothesis?

Correct Answer: The new teaching strategy will lower learning retention and tests scores.

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### Inferential statistics uses data taken from ______ to make generalizable observations to ______.

Correct Answer: A sample; a larger population

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### Type II error is _____ finding.

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### Type I error is _____ finding.

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### A mathematical formula that allows researchers to determine the likelihood of obtaining sample outcomes if the null hypothesis were true is known as_____

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### When the null hypothesis is retained, we reach significance.

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### A criterion of judgment upon which a decision is made regarding the value stated in a null hypothesis is known as_____

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### When the null hypothesis is rejected, we reach significance.

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### Power is the probability that we will detect an effect if an effect actually exists in a population.

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### Power is the probability that we will detect an effect if an effect actually exists in a population.

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### A sample statistic that is used to estimate a population parameter is known as_____

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### Parametric tests analyze data on_____ scale.

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### The p value is compared to the_____to make a decision about a null hypothesis.

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### Null hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter that is assumed to be false.

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### Nonparametric tests analyze data on_____ scale of measurement.

Correct Answer: Both a and b

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### A source of variation associated with mean differences across the levels of a single factor is known as_____

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### A criterion of judgment upon which a decision is made regarding the value stated in a null hypothesis is known as_____

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### The probability or likelihood that an interval estimate will contain the value of an unknown population parameter is known as_____

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### The interval or range of possible values within which an unknown population parameter is likely to be contained is known as_____

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### Interaction is a source of variation associated with how the effects of one factor are_____, the levels of a second factor.

Correct Answer: Both a and b

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### Procedures that allow researchers to infer or generalize observations made with samples to the larger population from which they were selected refer to inferential statistics.

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### Eta squared is a measure (η2) of proportion of _____ used to describe effect size for data analyzed using ANOVA.

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### The types of estimation include_____

Correct Answer: Both a and b

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### Effect size conventions means the standard rules for identifying_____ effects based on typical findings in behavioral research.

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### Effect size includes_____

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### A mean difference or discrepancy between what was observed in a sample and what was expected to be observed in the population is known as_____

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### A measure of proportion of variance that is used as an estimate of effect size for the chi-square test for independence is known as_____

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### The upper and lower boundaries of a confidence interval given within a specified level of confidence refer to_____

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### The interval or range of possible values within which an unknown population parameter is likely to be contained is known as_____

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### A measure of effect size in terms of the number of standard deviations that mean scores shifted above or below the population mean stated by the null hypothesis is known as_____

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### Cohen’s conventions means the standard rules for identifying _____ effects based on typical findings in behavioral research.

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### Coefficient of determination is a measure (R2) of proportion of_____ used to describe effect size for data analyzed using a correlation coefficient or regression.

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