1. A court applying the incitement test to determine if the producer of a video game was responsible for an injury caused by a game player will consider whether the game played was the proximate cause of the injury.
2. Laws that make viewpoint-based discriminations are reviewed under strict scrutiny and generally are unconstitutional.
3. Public schools may regulate student expression when it is sponsored by the school or is likely to be understood to represent the school.
4. Chilling effect is the name used to describe the tendency for unclear government regulations to discourage the exercise of constitutionally protected rights.
5. The First Amendment’s protection of disruptive speech is stable regardless of political, economic, or social conditions.
6. Fighting words are words directed at an individual that inflict injury or tend immediately to disturb the peace.
7. When speech and action are intertwined in a symbolic act, such as flag burning, ______.
8. Hate speech is ______.
9. The concept that the Fourteenth Amendment extends the reach of the Bill of Rights to apply equally to state governments is called ______.
10. In Brandenburg v. Ohio, the Supreme Court said advocacy of violence is protected speech unless the speech ______.
11. Given the Supreme Court’s ruling in Elonis v. United States, true threats that are directed at an individual with the intent and likelihood of causing the listener to fear bodily harm are ______.
12. The clear and present danger standard ______.
13. In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, the Supreme Court ruled that public schools ______.
14. The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the anti-hate ordinance at issue in RAV v. City of St. Paul because the law was ______.
15. When a law is challenged as applied, courts judge the law’s constitutionality based on ______.
16. Courts will apply a strict scrutiny test to determine whether the government acted constitutionally,this statement is related to _______ .
17. USA PATRIOT Act passed in ______.
18. A First Amendment doctrine that disfavors narrow laws that target a subset of a recognized category for discriminatory treatment is known as _______ .
19. True threat speech directed toward and _______ identified group with the intent of causing fear of harm .
20. The legal determination of whether it is reasonable to conclude that the defendant’s actions led to the plaintiff’s injury is known as _______ .
21. Generally, the failure to exercise reasonable or ordinary care is known as _______ .
22. Incorporation doctrine is the _______ concept that most of the Bill of Rights applies equally to the states.
23. Hate speech includes name-calling and pointed criticism that demeans others on the basis of race, color, gender, ethnicity, religion, national.
24. Fighting words _______ by the First Amendment because they are directed at an individual and cause immediate harm or trigger violent response.
25. Which of the correct statements about Clear and present danger ?
26. Chilling effect is the discouragement of a constitutional right, especially free speech, by any government practice
27. A legal phrase referring to interpretation of a statute on the basis of actual effects on the parties in the present case is known as _____ .
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