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Rationale Supporting Early Childhood Education MCQ

What is the first period of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Answer

Correct Answer: Sensorimotor

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In the twentieth century, several thinkers and educators elevated the image of children by focusing on ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Childhood as an important and distinct period

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The ways that children are viewed and treated by society has not changed in the past 100 years.

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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Erikson’s ______ theory outlines stages of development defined by fundamental conflicts that lead to personal growth.

Answer

Correct Answer: Psychosocial

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Maria Montessori described a ______ period where children are most able to learn and develop.

Answer

Correct Answer: Sensitive

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The child study movement led to ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Development of many university preschools

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______ is identified as the level where a child finds a task challenging but not too difficult to achieve with support.

Answer

Correct Answer: The zone of proximal development

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Friedrich Froebel emphasized the important role of ______ in the developing child.

Answer

Correct Answer: Play

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What is the early childhood approach that emphasizes the use of an atelier to exhibit children’s work, discussions, photographs of their activities and long-term projects?

Answer

Correct Answer: Reggio Emilia

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______ schools work to educate the whole child by focusing on “head, heard and hands.”

Answer

Correct Answer: Waldorf

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Research on the impact of early childhood education has consistently recognized the importance of ______ to achieve positive long-term outcomes.

Answer

Correct Answer: High quality

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The PK-3 movement (pre-kindergarten to third grade) has gained momentum in the field of early education because ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Research validates the importance of a continuum of learning across early childhood

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Rousseau and Pestalozzi agreed that all children ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Have the right to education

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______ provide a framework for understanding how children learn and develop over time.

Answer

Correct Answer: Perspectives

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Evidence from the Abecedarian Project demonstrated the increased benefits of high-quality early childhood education for ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Children in poverty

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ABC analysis is an observational technique in which the observer records observations in _________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Both a and b

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ZPD is Vygotsky’s theory, the zone that represents tasks children can yet do by themselves but which they can accomplish with the support of an older child or adult

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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In the cognitively oriented curriculum, the shortest block of time during which children engage in self-selected activities are known as Work time

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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Trust vs. mistrust is the fifth stage of development described by Erik Erikson, occurring during infancy, in which the child’s needs should be met consistently and predictably

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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In some research studies, children who have different characteristics and backgrounds are randomly placed into and assessed in three groups is known as Treatment and control groups

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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Stage theorist is any theory that delineate different stages in which devel­opment is marked by qualitatively different characteristics and accomplish­ments and in which each stage builds on the previous ones

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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_______ is the relative position to each other of objects and people in space

Answer

Correct Answer: Spatial relationships

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Originated by Lev Vygotsky, this theory gives promi­nence to the social, cultural, and historic context of child development is known as _____.

Answer

Correct Answer: Sociocultural theory

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In behavioral theory, rewards that convey approval through such responses As________.

Answer

Correct Answer: All of these

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_________In behavioral theory, a method used to teach a child a new behav­ior by breaking it down into small steps and reinforcing the attainment of each step systematically

Answer

Correct Answer: Shaping

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Seriation is a relationship among objects in which they are placed in a illogical order, such as from longest to shortest

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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Sensory discrimination is might include matching or sorting by

Answer

Correct Answer: All of these

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Piaget’s period covering infancy is known as _______

Answer

Correct Answer: Sensorimotor period

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Sensorial in montessori classroom area in which materials help children develop, organize, broaden ________

Answer

Correct Answer: All of these

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Maria Montessori’s term describing the times when chil­dren are most ______to absorbing specific learning is known as Sensitive periods

Answer

Correct Answer: Receptive

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Self-correcting is Learning materials such as puzzles that give the child immediate feedback on success when the task is completed.

Answer

Correct Answer: True

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According to Jean Piaget, cognitive struc­tures into which physical concepts is known as Schemata

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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________ is according to Jean Piaget, the ability to depict an object, person, action, or experience mentally, even if it is present in the imme­diate environment.

Answer

Correct Answer: Representation

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________is behavioral theory, any response that follows a behavior that encourages repetition of that behavior.

Answer

Correct Answer: Reinforcement

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_______ is an the cognitively oriented curriculum, the time when children review their work-time activities

Answer

Correct Answer: Recall time

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_____ is an aversive consequence that follows a behavior for the pur­pose of decreasing or eliminating the behavior.

Answer

Correct Answer: Punishment

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_________ theory is the branch of psychology founded by Erik Erikson, in which development is described in terms of eight stages that span child­hood and adulthood, each offering opportunities for personality growth and development

Answer

Correct Answer: Psychosocial

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A method of teaching in which the teacher determines exactly what the children should learn, are known as Programmed instruction

Answer

Correct Answer: True

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Maria Montessori’s term to describe the careful match between appropriate materials and what the child is not ready to learn at any given time is known

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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Piaget’s period covering the preschool years are known as ?

Answer

Correct Answer: Preoperational period

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Negative reinforcement is an application of a behavioral principle, which includes any immediate feedback (either through tangible or intangible means) to children that their behavior is valued.

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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_______ is in the cognitively oriented curriculum, the time set aside during which children decide what activities they would like to participate in during the ensuing work time

Answer

Correct Answer: Planning time

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The heart of the cognitively oriented curriculum through which children are encouraged to make deliberate, systematic choices with the help of teachers by planning ahead of time, carrying out, then recalling each day’s activities are known as ________

Answer

Correct Answer: Plan–do–review cycle

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______ is a relatively new approach that stresses the importance of continuity and alignment among early childhood and early elementary programs

Answer

Correct Answer: PK–3 movement

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According to Jean Piaget, the mental process by which a per­son organizes experiences and _______in relation to each other is known as organization .

Answer

Correct Answer: Information

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________ is the principle of behavioral theory whereby a per­son deliberately attempts to increase or decrease behavior by controlling consequences.

Answer

Correct Answer: Operant conditioning

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A program that operates on the assumption that children, provided with a well-conceived environment.

Answer

Correct Answer: Open education

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Actions that can be seen rather than those that are inferred is known as ________

Answer

Correct Answer: Observable behavior

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Part of Jean Piaget’s theory, the recognition that objects exist, even when they are out of view is known as ________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Object permanence

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Two of the cognitive concepts young children begin to acquire, involving an understanding of quantity is known as the number concept .

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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_________ is a research studies that included repeated collection of data over a specified period of time

Answer

Correct Answer: Longitudinal studies

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_________ is a according to Jean Piaget, the ability that begins to emerge around age 7 in which children use mental processes to solve problems rather than relying solely on perceived information

Answer

Correct Answer: Logical thinking

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The German word, literally meaning “garden for children,” coined by Friedrich Froebel for his program for young children is known as ________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Kindergarten

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Key experiences in the cognitively oriented curriculum, the eight cogni­tive concepts on which activities are built

Answer

Correct Answer: True

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The third stage of development described by Erik Erikson, occurring during the preschool years, in which the child’s curiosity and enthusiasm lead to a need to explore and learn about the world, and in which rules and expectations begin to be established is known as ________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Initiative vs. guilt

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The fourth stage of development described by Erik Erikson, starting at the end of the preschool years and lasting until puberty, in which the child focuses on the development of competence.

Answer

Correct Answer: Industry vs. inferiority

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________ is a way to describe what happens as individu­als move from infancy through adulthood, identifying significant events that are commonly experienced by all people, and explaining why changes occur as they do

Answer

Correct Answer: Human development theory

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Piaget’s period covering adolescence is known as _________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Formal operations periods

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________ is in behavioral theory, a method of eliminating a previously rein­forced behavior by taking away all reinforcement: for instance, by totally ignoring the behavior.

Answer

Correct Answer: Extinction

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According to Jean Piaget, the state of balance each person seeks between existing mental structures and new experiences are known as ?

Answer

Correct Answer: Equilibrium

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Ability to deal effectively with the environment is known as ________

Answer

Correct Answer: Ego strength

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Approaches to early childhood educa­tion, based on specific theoretical foundations, for instance, the behavioral, Piagetian, or Montessori view is known as________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Early childhood education models

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________ is according to Jean Piaget, the lack of balance experienced when existing mental structures and new experiences fit exactly.

Answer

Correct Answer: Disequilibrium

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_________ is a term often applied to teaching materials, indicating a built-in intent to provide specific instruction.

Answer

Correct Answer: Didactic

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Foundation of the Bank Street approach, concerned with the interaction among various aspects of each child’s development as well as between child and environment are known as __________.

Answer

Correct Answer: Developmental interactionist model

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Daily living are montessori classroom area that focuses on practical tasks involved in self-care and environment care

Answer

Correct Answer: True

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Piaget’s period covering the elementary school years are known as Concrete operations period.

Answer

Correct Answer: True

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Conceptual is montessori classroom area that focuses on academic materials related to ______

Answer

Correct Answer: All of these

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_______ theory formulated by Jean Piaget that focuses on how children’s intelligence and thinking abilities emerge through distinct stages.

Answer

Correct Answer: Cognitive developmental

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______ is the ability to sort and group objects by some common attri­bute or property: for instance, color or size

Answer

Correct Answer: Classification

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Child study Movement that occurred in the early years of the 22th century in the United States, when many university preschools were established to develop scientific methods for studying children

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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________ is the theoretical viewpoint, espoused by theorists such as B. F. Skinner, that behavior is shaped by environmental forces, specifically in response to reward and punishment

Answer

Correct Answer: Behaviorism

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The ________application of principles of rein­forcement to modify behavior is known as Behavior modification.

Answer

Correct Answer: Systematic

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The third stage of development described by Erik Erikson, occurring during the fourth year of life, in which toddlers assert their growing motor, language, and cognitive abilities by trying to become more independent is known Autonomy vs. shame and doubt.

Answer

Correct Answer: False

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According to Jean Piaget, one form of adaptation, which takes place when the person tries to make new information or a new experi­ence fit into an existing concept is known as ?

Answer

Correct Answer: Assimilation

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Jean Piaget’s term for the process that occurs anytime new information or a new experience occurs are known as _______

Answer

Correct Answer: Adaptation

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According to Jean Piaget, one form of adaptation, which takes place when an existing concept is modified or a new concept is formed to incorporate new information or a new experience is known as _______-.

Answer

Correct Answer: Accommodation

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According to Jean Piaget, the ability to solve a variety of problems abstractly, without a need to manipulate concrete objects are known as ______.

Answer

Correct Answer: Abstract thinking

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Maria Montessori’s term to describe the capacity of young children to learn a great deal during the early years of their lives are known as?

Answer

Correct Answer: Absorbent mind

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