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# Criminal Justice And Criminology (Statistics) MCQ

### _____ is defined as the sampling or probability distribution for chi-square tests.

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### _____ is when the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the critical value and the null is rejected.

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### Is statistical independence the condition in which two variables are not related to one another; that is, knowing what class persons or objects fall into on the independent variable does not help predict which class they will fall into on the dependent variable?

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### _____ is known as the condition in which two variables are related to one another; that is, knowing what class persons/objects fall into on the independent variable helps predict which class they will fall into on the dependent variable.

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### _____ is defined as an asymmetric measure of association for χ2 when the variables are nominal. Somers’ d ranges from –1.00 to +1.00.

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### _____ is known as a symmetric measure of association for chi-square with nominal variables and a 2 × 2 table. Identical to Cramer’s V.

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### _____ is defined as the class of statistical tests used when dependent variables are continuous and normally distributed and the sampling distribution can be assumed to approximate normality.

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### _____ is in SPSS output, the probability associated with the obtained value of the test statistic. When p < α, the null hypothesis is rejected.

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### Is obtained value the value of the test statistic arrived at using the mathematical formulas specific to a particular test. The obtained value is the final product of Step 4 of a hypothesis test?

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### _____ is known as the empirical results seen in a contingency table derived from sample data. Symbolized fo.

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### _____ is defined as the class of statistical tests used when dependent variables are categorical and the sampling distribution cannot be assumed to approximate normality.

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### _____ is procedures for determining the strength or magnitude of a relationship after a chi-square test has revealed a statistically significant association between two variables.

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### Is measures of association procedures for determining the strength or magnitude of a relationship after a chi-square test has revealed a statistically significant association between two variables?

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### _____ is known as an asymmetric measure of association for χ² when the variables are nominal. Lambda ranges from 0.00 to 1.00 and is a proportionate reduction in error measure.

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### _____ is defined as a symmetric measure of association for two ordinal variables when the number of rows and columns in the crosstabs table are unequal. Ranges from –1.00 to +1.00.

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### _____ is a symmetric measure of association for two ordinal variables when the number of rows and columns in the crosstabs table are equal. Ranges from –1.00 to +1.00.

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### Is goodman and Kruskal’s gamma a symmetric measure of association used when both variables are ordinal or one is ordinal and the other is dichotomous. Ranges from –1.00 to +1.00?

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### _____ is known as the theoretical results that would be seen if the null were true—that is, if the two variables were, in fact, unrelated. Symbolized fe.

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### _____ is defined as a symmetric measure of association for χ² when the variables are nominal or when one is ordinal and the other is nominal. V ranges from 0.00 to 1.00 and indicates the strength of the relationship. Higher values represent stronger relationships. Identical to phi in 2 × 2 tables.

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### _____ is the hypothesis-testing procedure appropriate when both the independent variable and the dependent variables are categorical.

Correct Answer: Chi-square test of independence

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### Expected frequencies are seen in which of the following circumstance?

Correct Answer: When the null is true.

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### What does the chi-square critical value depend on?

Correct Answer: Degrees of freedom and alpha

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### Which measure of association is used with nominal data?

Correct Answer: Lambda and Cramer’s V

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### In a chi-square test, what is the degrees of freedom based upon?

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### Which of the following statistical curves is the chi-square most similar to?

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### Which of the following statements is accurate when two variables are statistically independent?

Correct Answer: Knowing one will not help predict the other.

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### Which of the following is an asymmetrical ordinal measurement?

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### What do measures of association indicate?

Correct Answer: The strength of the magnitude of a relationship

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### Which of the following is true about the chi-square distribution?

Correct Answer: It is bounded to the left at zero.

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### Which of the following measures is an ordinal measures of association?

Correct Answer: Gamma and Somers’ d

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### Observed frequencies are the empirical values that appear in the crosstabs table.

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### The null hypothesis is rejected if the critical value exceeds the obtained value.

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### As the number of degrees of freedom increases the chi-square distribution becomes more normal.

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