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# Statistics and Probability MCQ

### The classical approach to probability requires that the outcomes are _______.

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### It is estimated that over ___________% of all crashes in the u.s. are caused by driver distraction.

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### It has been reported that the use of credit cards increases the ________ of customer spending.

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### Selections made with replacement are considered to be _______.

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### Tropical rainforests are not located in _______.

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### The ________ of a random variable corresponds to the notion of the mean, or average, for a sample.

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### Smoking and the episodes of lung cancer have a high correlation, but it does not prove ________.

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### Who, what, when, where, and why are elements of _____.

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### If n1 = n2 and n is relatively large, then the t test is relatively robust against ____.

Correct Answer: Violations of the assumptions of homogeneity of variance and normality

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### If its assumptions are met, the analysis of variance technique is appropriate when ____.

Correct Answer: All of the other three options

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### As the separation between the two groups of scores increases, uobt ____.

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### A disadvantage of using an arithmetic mean to summarize a set of data is that __________.

Correct Answer: It can be biased by one or two extremely small or large values

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### If the order of the items selected matters, then we have a _______.

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### When conducting a survey, it is important to choose a sample that __________.

Correct Answer: To avoid bias and to get a representative sample

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### Typically, a focus group should include ________ customers.

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### The population of the united states has grown approximately _____ times since 1790.

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### The size of the box in a boxplot shows the ____________________ of the data set.

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### Nielsen in its credited with providing _______________________ services.

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### Maximal oxygen uptake is the best single measurement of __________________.

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### For small samples, t intervals are ___________ z intervals based on the same data set.

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### A(n) ___________ solution satisfies all the constraint expressions simultaneously.

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### Math.pow(3, 3) returns ________.

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### The form of the continuous uniform probability distribution is _____.

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### When using two predictor variables, these variables should be ____________.

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### _____ involves reentering data that was not typed or scanned correctly.

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### The least squares criterion is _____.

Correct Answer: Min Σ(yi - ŷi)2

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### In a probability histogram, there is a correspondence between _______.

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### Class width is found by _______.

Correct Answer: Subtracting a lower class limit from the next consecutive lower class limit

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### An example of a qualitative variable is _________________.

Correct Answer: Color of ink in a pen

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### The empirical rule applies to distributions that are ________.

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### Checklists with several items to be considered by respondents may be subject to _____.

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### In order to summarize qualitative data, a useful tool is a __________.

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### In a multiple rating list scale, ____.

Correct Answer: It is possible to visualize the results better than with other numerical scales

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### The area under the normal curve to the right of mu equals _______.

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### Sample size and the confidence level width have a (n) __________ relationship.

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### As the degrees of freedom increase, the t distribution approaches the _____ distribution.

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### A critical value, z subscript alpha, denotes the _______.

Correct Answer: Z-score with an area of alpha to its right.

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### ________ is a single value used to describe the center point of a data set.

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### The distribution of sample means ____.

Correct Answer: Will be normal if either the population is normal or the sample size is n>30

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### The standard error of estimate can be used for constructing a(n) __________ interval about a value.

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### In point estimation, data from the _____.

Correct Answer: Sample are used to estimate the population parameter

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### A contingency table would be used to summarize data such as ________.

Correct Answer: Company employees by gender and organizational title

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### A scatter diagram is a(n) __________ step in exploring a relationship between two variables.

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### The t- distribution for developing a confidence interval for a mean has _____ degrees of freedom.

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### A skewed distribution typically has _____ tail(s) and a normal distribution has ____ tail(s).

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### The ________ measures the total variation in the dependent variable in simple regression analysis.

Correct Answer: Sum of squares regression

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### The ________ measures a distribution's standard deviation in terms of its percentage to the mean.

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### The test statistics for one-way anova follows the _______.

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### The probability that a normal random variable is less than its mean is _______.

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### The parameter p represents the ________ of successes in the population.

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### Children ages 2-5 watch an average of ____ hours of television a week.

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### A(n) __________ is an unusually small or unusually large data value.

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### In a scatter diagram, we describe the relationship between __________.

Correct Answer: Two variables measured at the interval or ratio level

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### In performing a one-way anova, the _________ is the between-group variance.

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### The _____ distribution is used for testing the significance of the slope term.

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### Proportion is ________________

Correct Answer: The relative size of an object as compared to another, or as compared to the other elements in the piece.

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### If a and b are mutually exclusive events with p(a) = 0.2 and p(b) = 0.6, then p(a or b) = _____.

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### A useful estimator for the population mean is the _______.

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### The computation of fe ____.

Correct Answer: Is based on known population proportions

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### A ____________ variable can have values that are numbers on the real number line.

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### When using the _______ always be careful to avoid double-counting outcomes.

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### The _____________ is the best point estimate of the population mean.

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### The _______ of a discrete random variable represents the mean value of the outcomes.

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### The five number summary can be calculated ___________.

Correct Answer: Both A & B

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### If the chosen significance level is ? = 0.05, then ____________________________________________.

Correct Answer: There is a 5% probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis

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### Behavior is to mental processes as ________ is to ________.

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### Automobile exhaust emission of co2 (milligrams per mile) is ____________ data.

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### A firm's ________ is defined as its theory about how to gain competitive advantages.

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### A dot plot shows ____________.

Correct Answer: The general shape of a distribution.

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### As the margin of error decreases, the width of the confidence interval _______________.

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### For a fixed sample size, the lower we set α, the higher is the ___________.

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### All of the following are measures of central tendency except the ____________.

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### A ranking scale is a scale that _____.

Correct Answer: Scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object

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### A correlation analysis requires that the data be either ________ data or _______ data.

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### The complement of an event a, within the sample space s, is the event consisting of ____________.

Correct Answer: All outcomes in S that are not in A

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### When a class interval is expressed as 100 up to 200, _________________________.

Correct Answer: Observations with values of 200 are excluded from the class frequency

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### The ____________ hypothesis is not rejected unless there is sufficient sample evidence to do so.

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### Excel's __________ can be used to construct a frequency distribution for categorical data.

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### In the t test for independent samples, the actual statistical test is__________________.

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### When using student's t to compute an interval estimate, ___________.

Correct Answer: We assume that the samples are collected from normally distributed populations and estimate the population standard deviation based on the sample standard deviation

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### A histogram aids in analyzing the _______ of the data.

Correct Answer: Shape of the distribution

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### The total degrees of freedom for an experiment with n1 = 10, n2 = 12, and n3 = 10 is ____.

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### When a correlation exists, lowering the range of either of the variables will _________.

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### The variance is equal to the _____.

Correct Answer: Squared value of the standard deviation

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### The word and in probability implies that we use the ________ rule.

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### The true sampling error is usually not known because ________.

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### The size of the sampling error is ________.

Correct Answer: Inversely related to the sample size—in other words, the larger the sample size, the smaller the sampling error

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### The critical value for a hypothesis test _______.

Correct Answer: The significance level and determines the boundary for the rejection region

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### Methods used that summarize or describe characteristics of data are called _______ statistics.

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### ________ probability represents the likelihood of a single event occurring by itself.

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### A _____ is a variable that changes the nature of the relationship between two other variables.

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### ________ is defined as recorded facts or figures.

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### ______ are the graphical components of regression analysis.

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### The t test for independent means is used when each group is tested ____________.

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### The t test for correlated groups requires that ____.

Correct Answer: The sampling distribution of variance is normally distributed

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### The t distribution approaches the _______________ distribution as the sample size ___________.

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### The sum of the differences between sample observations and the sample mean is equal to _______.

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### The sampling distribution of chi-square is ____.

Correct Answer: All of the other three options

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### The sample mean is _____ the confidence interval.

Correct Answer: In the center of

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### The range rule of thumb roughly estimates the standard deviation of a data set as _______.

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### The proportion of scores less than z = 0.00 is _________.

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### The probability distribution of all possible values of the sample mean is called the ____.

Correct Answer: Sampling distribution of the sample mean

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### The points at xequals=_______ and xequals=_______ are the inflection points on the normal curve.

Correct Answer: The points are x= μ− σ and x = μ+ σ

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### Probabilities are important information when __________.

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### Parameters are associated with __________; whereas, statistics are associated with __________.

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### Mean absolute deviation, standard deviation, and variance are all measures of the __________.

Correct Answer: Variability of a data set

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### In the t test for independent groups, ____.

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### In order to test a nondirectional hypothesis, a researcher would use a __________ test.

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### In a contingency table, we describe the relationship between ________.

Correct Answer: Two variables measured at the nomical or ordinal level

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### If you are asked to find the 85th percentile, you are being asked to find _____.

Correct Answer: A data value associated with an area of 0.85 to its right

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### If x is a binomial random variable with n=10 and p=0.8, the mean value of x is _____.

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### If two events are independent, then their joint probability is computed with _________.

Correct Answer: The special rule of multiplication

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### If n1 = 6, n2 = 8 and a = 0.052 tail, ucrit value is ____.

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### If n = 18 and a = 0.052 tailed, the value of tcrit is ____.

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### If a binomial distribution has p = .30, then q = ____.

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### If a = 0.05, and df = 4, the value of c 2crit = ____.

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### For the repeated-measures t statistic, df = _____.

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### For a data set, half of the observations are always greater than the _______.

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### Complete the formula: sample size = 0.25 * ( _____ /acceptable error)2

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### Based on the regression equation, we can _______________.

Correct Answer: Predict the value of the dependent variable given a value of the independent variable

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### An independent-measures study uses ____.

Correct Answer: ​a different group of participants for each of the treatment conditions being compared

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### An experiment may have ____________.

Correct Answer: One or more outcomes

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### All else being equal, increasing the level of confidence desired will _______.

Correct Answer: Increase the margin of error.

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### A uniform distribution will occur when __________.

Correct Answer: Individuals are competing for an evenly distributed resource such as space

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### A scatter chart ____.

Correct Answer: Compares trends over uneven time or measurement intervals

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### A sample standard deviation is the best point estimate of the ___________.

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### A probability distribution for all possible values of a sample statistic is known as a _____.

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### A population is ________.

Correct Answer: A group of individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area

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### A null hypothesis makes a claim about a __________.

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### A multiple regression model has _____.

Correct Answer: More than one independent variable

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