The student welfare office was interested in trying to enhance students’ exam performance by investigating the effects of various interventions. They took five groups of students before their statistics exams and gave them one of five interventions: (1) a control group just sat in a room contemplating the task ahead (Control); (2) the second group had a yoga class to relax them (Yoga); (3) the third group were told they would get monetary rewards contingent upon the grade they received in the exam (Bribes); (4) the fourth group were given beta-blockers to calm their nerves (Beta-Blockers); and (5) the fifth group were encouraged to sit around winding each other up about how much revision they had/hadn’t done (You’re all going to fail). The student welfare office made four predictions: (1) all interventions should be different from the control; (2) yoga, bribery and beta-blockers should lead to higher exam scores than panic; (3) yoga and bribery should have different effects than the beta-blocker drugs; and (4) yoga and bribery should also differ. Which of the following planned contrasts (with the appropriate group coding) are correct to test these hypotheses?
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