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# Educational Statistics MCQ

### Reinforcement is the _______ in a relationship

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### An attribute is also referred to as a ________.

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### By converting a distribution of observations into z-scores a new distribution is created that has a mean of ______and a standard deviation of _____.

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### Yate's continuity correction is an adjustment made to the ________ test when the contingency table is 2 rows by 2 columns

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### Y-axis is the ________ axis of a graph

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### X-axis is also known as ordinate

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### Another name for a 'repeated-measures design'

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### Winsorizing is a method for reducing the impact of

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### A version of the ________ designed to be accurate when the assumption of homogeneity of variance has been violated.

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### Weight is a number by which something (usually a variable in statistics) is

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### The VIF indicates whether a predictor has a _____________ with the other predictor(s).

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### Variance is an estimate of _________ of a set of scores.

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### Variables

Correct Answer: None of the above

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### Validity is evidence that a study allows correct inferences about the question it was aimed to answer

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### Upper quartile is the value that cuts off the highest _____ of ordered scores.

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### Unsystematic variation is variation that is due to the effect in which we are interested

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### For A & B union is the probability of

Correct Answer: A or B occurring

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### Unbiased estimator is a statistic from a sample that ________ the corresponding population parameter.

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### Type ____ error occurs when we believe that there is no effect in the population when, in reality, there is

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### Type ____ error occurs when we believe that there is a genuine effect in our population, when in fact there isn't

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### Two-tailed test is a test of a ____________ hypothesis

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### Trimmed mean produces accurate results even only the distribution is symmetrical.

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### Trimmed data is a data after a certain percentage of the distribution has been removed at the

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### In probability theory, a trial is a repetition of an experiment

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### To correct some distributional abnormality such as skew or kurtosis, or converting to a z-score are included in

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### Total sum of squares is a measure of the total_________ within a set of observations

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### Tolerance is the _______ of the variance inflation factor

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### An experimental design incorporating three categorical predictors (or independent variables) is known as

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### New hypothesis can be generated from a theory

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### A statistic for which we know how frequently different values occur is known as

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### Test-retest reliability is the ability of a measure to produce ________ results when the same entities are tested at two different points in time

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### Tertium quid is often called

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### A family of probability distributions describing samples taken from a population that is normally distributed is known as

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### Systematic variation is a variation due to some genuine effect

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### SS is the sum of

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### Sum of squared errors is opposite to sum of squares

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### Statistic is usually computed from the

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### Standardized distributions are usually used to make comparable distributions incomparable.

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### Standardization is the process of converting a ________ into a standard unit of measurement.

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### Standard normal distribution has a mean of

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### Standard error of the mean is standard error associated with the mean

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### Standard error of differences is a measure of the variability of differences between sample means.

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### Standard error is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic.

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### Standard deviation is the ______ of variance

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### Sphericity is the assumption that the variances of the differences between scores from the same entity across different treatments are

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### Spearman's rho is a standardized measure of the strength of relationship between ________ that does not rely on the assumptions of the linear model.

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### Symmetrical distributions have a skew of

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### Simple regression model takes the form in which Y is

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### Simple effect analysis looks at the effect of one independent variable (categorical predictor variable) at individual levels of

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### Shapiro-Wilk test is a test of whether a distribution of scores is significantly different from a normal distribution

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### A score is collection of measurements or observations of many instances of a variable

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### A graph that plots values of one variable against the corresponding value of another variable is known as

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### Sampling without replacement is when a sample is constructed from a population or sample space such that after an entity is selected to be in the sample, it is taken out of the

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### When a sample is constructed from a population or sample space such that after an entity is selected to be in the sample, it is put back into the population or sample space. It is known as

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### Sampling variation includes ______ variation

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### The difference between the value of a population parameter, and the value estimated from the sample is known as

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### __________ is the probability distribution of a statistic.

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### In empirical probability theory, the sample space is the set of observed outcomes of several trials of an experiment.

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### The mean of a sample of scores is known as

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### A sample is a ________ collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population

Correct Answer: Both A & B

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### Robust estimation is a term applied to procedures to estimate statistics or the standard errors and confidence intervals of statistics that are not unduly biased by the shape of the

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### Reverse scoring is done by subtracting the score on a reverse-phrased item from the maximum score for that item plus the minimum score.

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### Reverse phrasing are normally questions on a survey are phrased so that a ______ response represents more of the construct being measured

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### Response bias is a general term for participants giving responses that reflect their true beliefs

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### The difference between the value a model predicts and the value observed in the data on which the model is based is known as

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### An experimental design in which different treatment conditions utilize the same entities and so the resulting data are related; is known as

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### Reliability is the ability of a measure to produce consistent results when the ________ entities are measured under different conditions

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### Relative frequency is the frequency of a__________ expressed relative to the total number of observations

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### Related design is another name for a repeated-measures design

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### Regression line is a line on a _______ representing the regression model of the relationship between the two variables plotted

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### Raw score is a score

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### In ratio scale zero is a

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### In raw score ranking the the lowest score is assigned a rank

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### ________ a measure of the dispersion of a set of scores

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### If the entities in a population or sample space have an equal chance of being selected then a sample resulting from this selection process is a

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### Quasi-experimental design is a research design in which the experimenter has ______ over either the allocation of participants to conditions, or the timing of the experimental manipulations

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### Quartile is a generic term for the_______ values that cut an ordered data set into four equal parts.

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### Qualitative method refers to Inferring evidence for a theory through measurement of variables that produce numeric outcomes.

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### Quantiles include

Correct Answer: All of the above

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### Qualitative methods refer to extrapolating evidence for a theory from what people say or write.

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### Proportion is the frequency of a particular__________ relative to the total number of scores.

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### Programmable matter is matter that can change from one ________ form to another

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### For categorical variables probability distribution is simply a formula yielding the probability with which each category occurs.

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### The function that describes the probability of a ________ variable taking a certain value.

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### The_______ of an event is the number of times the event occurs divided by the total number of possible events (i.e., the sample space)

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### When using Bayes' theorem to test a hypothesis, the prior probability is our belief in a hypothesis or model ________ considering the data

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### In Bayesian hypothesis testing, the prior odds are the probability of the ________ hypothesis divided by the probability of the ________ hypothesis

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### A variable that is used to try to predict values of another variable ,known as an outcome variable, is called

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### Predictive validity is a form of criterion validity where there is evidence that________ from an instrument predict external measures

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### Predicted value is the value of an outcome variable based on specific values of the ________ or variables being placed into a statistical model

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### In statistics, precision has a definition of 1/ variance

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### Practice effect refers to the possibility that participants' performance in a task may be influence___________ if they repeat the task because of familiarity with the experimental situation and/or the measures being used

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### The ability of a test to detect an effect of a particular size is known as

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### A set of comparisons between group means that were not thought of before data were collected is known as

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### Posterior probability is the ________ conditional probability of the likelihood.

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### The ratio of posterior probability for one hypothesis to another is known as

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### Platykurtic is a distribution with _______ kurtosis

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