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# Diverse Society MCQ

### Symmetrical measure of association whose value will be the same when either variable is considered the independent variable or the dependent variable.

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### The absence of association between two cross-tabulated variables is statistical independence

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### A measure that tells us how much we can improve predicting the value of a dependent variable based on information about an independent variable is proportional reduction of error

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### ____ relationship is a bivariate relationship between two variables measured at the ordinal level or higher in which the variables vary in the same direction.

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### The cell frequencies actually observed in a bivariate table is ___ frequencies

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### ____ relationship is a bivariate relationship between two variables measured at the ordinal level or higher in which the variables vary in opposite directions.

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### A single summarizing number that reflects the strength of a relationship, indicates the usefulness of predicting the dependent variable from the independent variable, and often shows the direction of the relationship is measure of association

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### An asymmetrical measure of association, lambda is suitable for use with nominal variables and may range from 0.0 to 1.0 is called

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### A symmetrical measure of association suitable for use with ordinal variables is kendall's tau b

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### ____ is symmetrical measure of association suitable for use with ordinal variables or with dichotomous nominal variables

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### The cell frequencies that would be expected in a bivariate table if the two variables were statistically independent is expected frequencies

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### Elaboration is a process designed to further explore a bivariate relationship; it involves the introduction of control variables.

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### Cramer's V chi-square-related measure of association for nominal variables. Cramer’s V is based on the value of chi-square and ranges between 0 and 1

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### An additional variable considered in a bivariate relationship. The variable is controlled for when we take into account its effect on the variables in the bivariate relationship is control variable

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### An inferential technique designed to test for a significant relationship between two variables organized in a bivariate table is chi square test

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### The test statistic that summarizes the differences between the observed (fo) and the expected (fe) frequencies in a bivariate table is chi square

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### Asymmetrical measure of measure of association whose value may vary depending on which variable is considered the independent variable and which the dependent variable.

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### The χ2 test statistic ______.

Correct Answer: Summarizes the differences between the observed and expected frequencies in a bivariate table

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### Suppose you are interested in the relationship between whether a person has completed college and their vote in the 2012 presidential election. You calculate a χ2 statistic of 4.72 and find a critical value in the χ2 table of 5.01. What do you conclude?

Correct Answer: We cannot reject the null hypothesis.

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### Cramer’s V is a(n) ______ measure of association for ______ variables.

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### The use of Kendall’s tau-b as a measure of association is specifically designed to account for ______ observations.

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### Gamma ranges from ______.

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### Which of the following measures is considered an asymmetrical measure of association?

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### Lambda is an appropriate measure of association for ______ level variables.

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### The value of asymmetrical measures of association may vary depending on which variable is considered the ______ and which is considered the ______.

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### Which of the following statements illustrates the greatest weakness of the χ2 test?

Correct Answer: It is dramatically influenced by the size of the sample.

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### The χ2 statistic tells us about the relationship between observed and expected frequencies by summarizing their ______.

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### In examining the relationship between religious affiliation and perceived life satisfaction, a researcher calculates the value to λ to be 0.12. What is the correct interpretation of this quantity?

Correct Answer: Using religious affiliation to predict perceived quality of life reduces the number of errors associated with prediction by 12%.

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### Gamma is a symmetrical measure of association suitable for use with ______ variables.

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### Both λ and γ provide us with ______.

Correct Answer: The strength of association between the independent and dependent variables

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