# Publications

## Non-adiabatic Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics Simulation Based on Electronic Structure Calculations using the Variational Quantum Eigensolver

A non-adiabatic nuclear wavepacket dynamics simulation of the H_{2}O^{+} de-excitation process is performed based on electronic structure calculations using the variational quantum eigensolver. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces and non-adiabatic coupling vectors are computed with algorithms for noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices, and time propagation is simulated with conventional methods for classical computers. The results of non-adiabatic transition dynamics from the B^{~} state to A^{~ }state reproduce the trend reported in previous studies, which suggests that this quantum-classical hybrid scheme may be a useful application for noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices.

## Analytic energy gradient for state-averaged orbital-optimized variational quantum eigensolvers and its application to a photochemical reaction

Elucidating photochemical reactions is vital to understand various biochemical phenomena and develop functional materials such as artificial photosynthesis and organic solar cells, albeit its notorious difficulty by both experiments and theories. The best theoretical way so far to analyze photochemical reactions at the level of ab initio electronic structure is the state-averaged multi-configurational self-consistent field (SA-MCSCF) method. However, the exponential computational cost of classical computers with the increasing number of molecular orbitals hinders applications of SA-MCSCF for large systems we are interested in. Utilizing quantum computers was recently proposed as a promising approach to overcome such computational cost, dubbed as SA orbital-optimized variational quantum eigensolver (SA-OO-VQE). Here we extend a theory of SA-OO-VQE so that analytical gradients of energy can be evaluated by standard techniques that are feasible with near-term quantum computers. The analytical gradients, known only for the state-specific OO-VQE in previous studies, allow us to determine various characteristics of photochemical reactions such as the minimal energy (ME) points and the conical intersection (CI) points. We perform a proof-of-principle calculation of our methods by applying it to the photochemical *cis-trans* isomerization of 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene. Numerical simulations of quantum circuits and measurements can correctly capture the photochemical reaction pathway of this model system, including the ME and CI points. Our results illustrate the possibility of leveraging quantum computers for studying photochemical reactions.

## Molecular Structure Optimization based on Electrons-Nuclei Quantum Dynamics Computation

A new concept of the molecular structure optimization method based on quantum dynamics computations is presented. Nuclei are treated as quantum mechanical particles, as are electrons, and the many-body wave function of the system is optimized by the imaginary time evolution method. A demonstration with a 2-dimensional H_{2}^{+ }molecule shows that the optimized nuclear positions can be specified with a small number of observations. This method is considered to be suitable for quantum computers, the development of which will realize its application as a powerful method.

## Deep variational quantum eigensolver for excited states and its application to quantum chemistry calculation of periodic materials

A programmable quantum device that has a large number of qubits without fault-tolerance has emerged recently. Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) is one of the most promising ways to utilize the computational power of such devices to solve problems in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. As the size of the current quantum devices is still not large for rivaling classical computers at solving practical problems, Fujii et al. proposed a method called "Deep VQE" which can provide the ground state of a given quantum system with the smaller number of qubits by combining the VQE and the technique of coarse-graining [K. Fujii, et al, arXiv:2007.10917]. In this paper, we extend the original proposal of Deep VQE to obtain the excited states and apply it to quantum chemistry calculation of a periodic material, which is one of the most impactful applications of the VQE. We first propose a modified scheme to construct quantum states for coarse-graining in Deep VQE to obtain the excited states. We also present a method to avoid a problem of meaningless eigenvalues in the original Deep VQE without restricting variational quantum states. Finally, we classically simulate our modified Deep VQE for quantum chemistry calculation of a periodic hydrogen chain as a typical periodic material. Our method reproduces the ground-state energy and the first-excited-state energy with the errors up to O(1)% despite the decrease in the number of qubits required for the calculation by two or four compared with the naive VQE. Our result will serve as a beacon for tackling quantum chemistry problems with classically-intractable sizes by smaller quantum devices in the near future.

## Quadratic Clifford expansion for efficient benchmarking and initialization of variational quantum algorithms

Variational quantum algorithms are appealing applications of near-term quantum computers. However, there are two major issues to be solved, that is, we need an efficient initialization strategy for parametrized quantum circuit and to know the limitation of the algorithms by benchmarking it on large scale problems. Here, we propose a perturbative approach for efficient benchmarking and initialization of variational quantum algorithms. The proposed technique performs perturbative expansion of a circuit consisting of Clifford and Pauli rotation gates, which enables us to determine approximate optimal parameters and an optimal value of a cost function simultaneously. The classical simulatability of Clifford circuits is utilized to achieve this goal. Our method can be applied to a wide family of parameterized quantum circuits, which consist of Clifford gates and single-qubit rotation gates. Since the introduced technique provides us a perturbative energy of a quantum system when applied to the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE), our proposal can also be viewed as a quantum-inspired classical method for perturbative energy calculation. As the first application of the method, we perform a benchmark of so-called hardware-efficient-type ansatzes when they are applied to the VQE of one-dimensional hydrogen chains up to H24, which corresponds to 48-qubit system, using a standard workstation.

## Penalty methods for variational quantum eigensolver

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a promising algorithm to compute eigenstates and eigenenergies of a given quantum system that can be performed on a near-term quantum computer. Obtaining eigenstates and eigenenergies in a specific symmetry sector of the system is often necessary for practical applications of the VQE in various fields ranging from high energy physics to quantum chemistry. It is common to add a penalty term in the cost function of the VQE to calculate such a symmetry-resolving energy spectrum, but systematic analysis on the effect of the penalty term has been lacking, and the use of the penalty term in the VQE has not been justified rigorously. In this work, we investigate two major types of penalty terms for the VQE that were proposed in the previous studies. We show a penalty term in one of the two types works properly in that eigenstates obtained by the VQE with the penalty term reside in the desired symmetry sector. We further give a convenient formula to determine the magnitude of the penalty term, which may lead to the faster convergence of the VQE. Meanwhile, we prove that the other type of penalty terms does not work for obtaining the target state with the desired symmetry in a rigorous sense and even gives completely wrong results in some cases. We finally provide numerical simulations to validate our analysis. Our results apply to general quantum systems and lay the theoretical foundation for the use of the VQE with the penalty terms to obtain the symmetry-resolving energy spectrum of the system, which fuels the application of a near-term quantum computer.

## Variational Quantum Simulation for Periodic Materials

We present a quantum-classical hybrid algorithm that simulates electronic structures of periodic systems such as ground states and quasiparticle band structures. By extending the unitary coupled cluster (UCC) theory to describe crystals in arbitrary dimensions, we numerically demonstrate in hydrogen chain that the UCC ansatz implemented on a quantum circuit can be successfully optimized with a small deviation from the exact diagonalization over the entire range of the potential energy curves. Furthermore, with the aid of the quantum subspace expansion method, in which we truncate the Hilbert space within the linear response regime from the ground state, the quasiparticle band structure is computed as charged excited states. Our work establishes a powerful interface between the rapidly developing quantum technology and modern material science.

## Deep Variational Quantum Eigensolver: a divide-and-conquer method for solving a larger problem with smaller size quantum computers

We propose a divide-and-conquer method for the quantum-classical hybrid algorithm to solve larger problems with small-scale quantum computers. Specifically, we concatenate variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) with reducing the dimensions of the system, where the interactions between divided subsystems are taken as an effective Hamiltonian expanded by the reduced basis. Then the effective Hamiltonian is further solved by VQE, which we call *deep VQE*. Deep VQE allows us to apply quantum-classical hybrid algorithms on small-scale quantum computers to large systems with strong intra-subsystem interactions and weak inter-subsystem interactions, or strongly correlated spin models on large regular lattices. As proof-of-principle numerical demonstrations, we use the proposed method for Heisenberg anti-ferromagnetic models, including one-dimensionally coupled 12-qubit Heisenberg anti-ferromagnetic models on Kagome lattices. The largest problem size of 48 qubits is solved by simulating 12-qubit quantum computers. The proposed scheme enables us to handle the problems of >1000 qubits by concatenating VQE with a few tens of qubits. Deep VQE will provide us a promising pathway to solve practically important problems on noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers.

## Optimal resource cost for error mitigation

We provide a general methodology for evaluating the optimal resource cost for an error mitigation employing methods developed in resource theories. We consider the probabilistic error cancellation as an error mitigation technique and show that the optimal sampling cost realizable using the full expressibility of near-term devices is related to a resource quantifier equipped with a framework in which noisy implementable operations are considered as the free resource, allowing us to obtain its universal bounds. As applications, we show that the cost for mitigating the depolarizing noise presented in [Temme, Bravyi, and Gambetta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 180509 (2017)] is optimal, and extend the analysis to several other classes of noise model, as well as provide generic bounds applicable to general noise channels given in a certain form. Our results not only provide insights into the potential and limitations on feasible error mitigation on near-term devices but also display an application of resource theories as a useful theoretical toolkit.

## Calculating nonadiabatic couplings and Berry's phase by variational quantum eigensolvers

Investigating systems in quantum chemistry and quantum many-body physics with the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is one of the most promising applications of forthcoming near-term quantum computers. The VQE is a variational algorithm for finding eigenenergies and eigenstates of such quantum systems. In this paper, we propose VQE-based methods to calculate the nonadiabatic couplings of molecules in quantum chemical systems and Berry's phase in quantum many-body systems. Both quantities play an important role to understand various properties of a system (e.g., nonadiabatic dynamics and topological phase of matter) and are related to derivatives of eigenstates with respect to external parameters of the system. Here, we show that the evaluation of inner products between the eigenstate and the derivative of the same/different eigenstate reduces to the evaluation of expectation values of observables, and we propose quantum circuits and classical post-processings to calculate the nonadiabatic couplings and Berry's phase. In addition, we demonstrate our methods by numerical simulation of the nonadiabatic coupling of the hydrogen molecule and Berry's phase of a spin-1/2 model. Our proposal widens the applicability of the VQE and the possibility of near-term quantum computers to study molecules and quantum many-body systems.